The most famous natural symbol of Armenia is Mount Ararat, the legendary Noah's Ark berth. Mount Ararat consists of two peaks, a conical shape, with a common base. Armenians call them names of two legendary brothers Sis (small Ararat, height - 3925 m) and Masis (Ararat great height - 5165 m). This consciousness is striking natural landscape is the result of volcanic activity. That is why the ascent to the Masis quite dangerous: the slopes are cut by ravines that converge to a steep and rocky peaks covered with snow. The researchers believe that the name of the ancient Armenian kingdom of Urartu is precisely the name of Mount Ararat.
Temple of Garni
The Temple of Garni (Armenian: Գառնիի հեթանոսական տաճար, Gařnii het’anosakan tačar) is a reconstructed classical Hellenistic temple near Garni, Armenia. It is the only Greco-Roman colonnaded building in Armenia. It is the best-known structure and symbol of pre-Christian Armenia. It was probably built by king Tiridates I in the first century AD as a temple to the sun god Mithra (known as Mihr in Armenian). After Armenia's conversion to Christianity in the early fourth century, it was converted into a royal summer house of Khosrovidukht, the sister of Tiridates III. According to some scholars it was not a temple but a tomb and thus survived the universal destruction of pagan structures. It collapsed in a 1679 earthquake. Renewed interest in the 19th century led to its eventual reconstruction between 1969 and 1975.
Geghard (Armenian: Գեղարդ, meaning "spear") is a medieval monastery in the Kotayk province of Armenia, being partially carved out of the adjacent mountain, surrounded by cliffs. It is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. While the main chapel was built in 1215, the monastery complex was founded in the 4th century by Gregory the Illuminator at the site of a sacred spring inside a cave. The monastery had thus been originally named Ayrivank (Այրիվանք), meaning "the Monastery of the Cave". The name commonly used for the monastery today, Geghard, or more fully Geghardavank (Գեղարդավանք), meaning "the Monastery of the Spear", originates from the spear which had wounded Jesus at the Crucifixion, allegedly brought to Armenia by Apostle Jude, called here Thaddeus, and stored amongst many other relics. Now it is displayed in the Echmiadzin treasury.
Khor Virap is located on the site of the ancient capital Artashat, which was founded in the II. BC. e. King Artashes I (Parthian dynasty). Virap translated from Armenian means pit. At the site of the monastery was a prison in which 13 years spent Gregory the Illuminator of the fact that during one of the pagan rituals Gregory refuses to take part, and talks about his faith and origin. According to legend the pit into which he was thrown, it was full of snakes and scorpions, and he had to die, but lived there for 13 years. He delivers King Trdat of the disease. Tiridat in 301 AD accepted Christianity itself and makes the religion of the state. Armenia was the first country in the world to adopt Christianity. Gregory became the first Armenian Patriarch in the Christian world became known as Gregory the Illuminator. The first church on the site was built in IV., but was destroyed by an earthquake. The current church was built in the XVII century. Khor Virap is one of the shrines of the Armenian Apostolic Church is a pilgrimage for Christians and all believers in the world. The monastery is also known that the proximity to Mount Ararat and therefore see the legendary peaks in the vicinity only of this ancient monastery.
Erebuni Fortress (Armenian: Էրեբունի), also known as Arin Berd (Armenian: Արին Բերդ; meaning the "Fortress of Blood") is an Urartian fortified city, located in Yerevan, Armenia. It is situated at an height of 1017 m. It was one of several fortresses built along the northern Urartian border and was one of the most important political, economic and cultural centers of the vast kingdom. The name Yerevan itself is derived from Erebuni.
The Tatev monastery (Armenian: Տաթևի վանք Tat'evi vank' ) is a 9th-century monastery located on a large basalt plateau near the Tatev village in Syunik Province in southeastern Armenia. The term "Tatev" usually refers to the monastery. The monastic ensemble stands on the edge of a deep gorge of the Vorotan River. Tatev is known as the bishopric seat of Syunik and played a significant role in the history of the region as a center of economic, political, spiritual and cultural activity. In the 14th and 15th centuries Tatev Monastery hosted one of the most important Armenian medieval universities, the University of Tatev, which contributed to the advancement of science, religion and philosophy, reproduction of books and development of miniature painting. Scholars of the Tatev University contributed to the preservation of Armenian culture and creed during one of its most turbulent periods in its history.
Zvartnots Cathedral (Armenian: Զուարթնոց (classical); Զվարթնոց (reformed); meaning "celestial angels") is a 7th-century centrally planned aisled tetraconch type Armenian cathedral built by the order of Catholicos Nerses the Builder from 643-652. Now in ruins, it is located at the edge of the city of Vagharshapat (Etchmiadzin) in Armavir Province of Armenia. Zvartnots was added to the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2000.
Echmiadzin Cathedral(Armenian: Էջմիածնի Մայր Տաճար, Ēǰmiatsni Mayr Tačar) is the mother church of the Armenian Apostolic Church, located in the city of Vagharshapat, Armenia. According to most scholars, it was the first cathedral built in ancient Armenia, and is considered the oldest cathedral in the world.The original church was built in the early fourth century - between 301 and 303 according to tradition - by Armenia's patron saint Gregory the Illuminator, following the adoption of Christianity as a state religion by King Tiridates III. As the main spiritual center of most Armenians worldwide, Etchmiadzin has been an important location in Armenia not only religiously, but also politically, economically and culturally. A major pilgrimage site, it is one of the most visited places in the country. Along with several important early medieval churches located nearby, the cathedral was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000.
Haghpat Monastery, a religious complex founded in the 10th century and included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The most important of the cupola-hall type buildings is Nshana church in Haghpat, founded by Khosrovanuish in 976 and completed in 991. It is distinguished by its compactness and harmoniously balanced shapes crowned with a tremendous dome. In the interior, the fancy shape of the high cupola abutments, protruding to the center, is smoothly combined with high arches, resting on them and changing over from the semicircular to the pointed shape. The decoration, particularly ornamental carving, is very modest.
Sanahin (Armenian: Սանահին) is a village in the northern province of Lori in Armenia, now considered part of the city of Alaverdi. The village is notable for its Sanahin Monastery complex, founded in the 10th century and listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the monastery in nearby Haghpat.
Noravank (Armenian: Նորավանք, literally "new monastery") is a 13th-century Armenian monastery, located 122 km from Yerevan in a narrow gorge made by the Amaghu River, near the city of Yeghegnadzor, Armenia. The gorge is known for its tall, sheer, brick-red cliffs, directly across from the monastery. The monastery is best known for its two-storey Surb Astvatsatsin (Holy Mother of God) church, which grants access to the second floor by way of a narrow stone-made staircase jutting out from the face of building.
Zorats Karer or Karahunj
Zorats Karer (Armenian: Զորաց Քարեր, locally Դիք-դիք քարեր Dik-dik karer), also called Karahunj, Qarahunj or Carahunge is a prehistoric archaeological site in the Syunik Province of Armenia. The phrase Zorats Karer is literally translated from Armenian as Army Stones. It is also often referred to in international tourist lore as the Armenian Stonehenge. The name Carahunge is interpreted as deriving from two Armenian words: car (or kar) (Armenian: քար), meaning stone, and hunge or hoonch (Armenian: հունչ), meaning sound. Thus the name Carahunge means Speaking Stones.
This interpretation is related to the fact that the stones make whistling sounds on a windy day, presumably because of multiple reach-through holes bored under different angles into the stones in prehistoric times. About 80 of the stones feature a circular hole, although only 37 of the stones, with 47 holes, are still standing. They have been of interest to Russian and Armenian archaeoastronomers who have suggested that the standing stones could have been used for astronomical observation. Seventeen of the stones were associated with observations of sunrise or sunset at the solstices and equinoxes, and 14 with the lunar extremes. Investigation by radiophysicist Paris Herouni and his research team during 1994-2001 concluded that Carahunge is the world's oldest astronomical observatory.
Lake Sevan (Armenian: Սևանա լիճ Sevana lič) is the largest lake in Armenia and the Caucasus region. It is one of the largest freshwater high-altitude lakes in the world. Lake Sevan is situated in the central part of the Republic of Armenia, in the Gegharkunik Province, at the altitude of 1,900 m (6,200 ft) above sea level. The total surface area of its basin is about 5,000 km2 (1,900 sq mi), the lake itself is 940 km2, and the volume is 34.0 billion m3. It is fed by 28 rivers and streams. Only 10% of the outgoing water is drained by the Hrazdan (Razdan) river, while the remaining 90% evaporates.
National History Museum and the Art Gallery of Armenia
The National History Museum of Armenia and the Art Gallery of Armenia are located in one building at the Republic Square, the heart of Yerevan. They display the history and art of Armenia for the whole period of existence of this state. The History Museum of Armenia is a museum in Armenia with departments of Archaeology, Numismatics, Ethnography, Modern History and Restoration. It has a national collection of 400,000 objects.
Exhibitions and expositions devoted to different eras and events in the history of Armenia are often held here.
In addition, collections of these museums are replenished each year.
he Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts (Armenian: Մեսրոպ Մաշտոցի անվան հին ձեռագրերի ինստիտուտ (Mesrop Mashtots'i anvan hin dzeragreri institut)), commonly referred to as the Matenadaran (Armenian: About this sound Մատենադարան), is a repository of ancient manuscripts, research institute and museum in Yerevan, Armenia. It holds one of the world's richest depositories of medieval manuscripts and books which span a broad range of subjects, including history, philosophy, medicine, literature, art history and cosmography in Armenian and many other languages. In addition to the Matenadaran's Armenian manuscripts, there is a vast collection of historical documents numbering over 2,000 in languages such as Arabic, Persian, Hebrew, Japanese and Russian. The Mashtots Matenadaran Ancient Manuscripts Collection was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme Register in 1997 in recognition of its world significance.
Cascade Yerevan is one of the famous cascades created in the XX century. Yerevan stage comprises a number of unusual architectural solutions. For example, the water cascade falls from the tubes which form patterns, including traditional symbols RA. On the back wall of the waterfall lined with unique mosaic - fish from colored stones.
Thanks to American philanthropist Gerard Gafeschyan construction stage of Yerevan was completed by 17 November 2009 and it was opened arts center. The basis of the collection put private collection of the founder. Near the steps leading to the top are various fountains, flower beds. Fountains and various ornaments include the obelisks, which were inherent in the ancient state of Urartu. Cascade - a favorite vacation place of all Yerevan residents and tourists. From viewing platforms on the tiers of the Cascade can observe different urban landscapes, which are the backdrop for Big and Small of Mount Ararat.
Tsitsernakaberd is a memorial complex dedicated to the memory of victims of the Armenian genocide of 1915 and located on the hills of the same name, which is translated as “fortress of swallows”.
The memorial Tsitsernakaberd became the main place of memory and mourning for the dead for Armenians. The complex consists of 44-meter stele forwarded to the sky and divided into two parts by a crack running from bottom to top, the symbolic grave consisting of 12 concrete slabs around the eternal flame burning at a depth of 1.5 meters and the 100-meter memorial wall, with names of all the cities and towns where massacres had taken place. All elements of the complex represent the features of the Armenian Genocide: the broken stele symbolizes the divided people of Armenia, 12 plates - 12 areas in which the extermination had place.
Every year on April 24 hundreds of thousands of people come here to commemorate the victims of genocide and to lay flowers at the eternal flame. Thanks to the efforts of the Armenian Diaspora this day is entered into the history of many countries and all over the world there are monuments to those who lost their innocent lives.
The Armenian Genocide Museum opened its doors in 1995. It is located close to the memorial and displays photographs and publications of witnesses of Armenian genocide. Close to the museum there is an alley with trees planted by world leaders, who visited Tsitsernakaberd.